Saturday, 10 December 2016


Source: Listovative
It is vitally important that the current generations sufficiently prepare our children for the future that they will inherit. Moreover, they will become the problem solvers, decision-makers as well as the leaders. Children will be able to face the numerous environmental challenges because they are adequately equipped and prepared. Therefore, it is imperative that, through Environmental Education (EE), children are taught valuable environmental lessons as well as how to solve environmental problems.

Botkin (1990) (as cited in Colwell 1997) defines nature as “the natural world on the Earth as it exists without human beings or civilization. It includes mountains, plains, rivers, lakes, oceans, air, rocks along with all non-human, non-domesticated living things”. The environment is the habitat in which living things maintain their reciprocation and interact with each other throughout their lifetimes. Because life and environment are interdependent, environment is a vital human element (Genc 2015).
Source: Mother Nature Network
Alarming global socio-environmental problems have recently occurred. Moreover, this has led to complex conservation challenges because our climate is changing, and natural resources are frequently overused and are quickly vanishing, and, sadly, many people have lost interest in the natural world.
Source: Transforming Life Now
Notably, environmental issues will (and already are) some of the most pressing issues as global population continues to grow exponentially and which place huge strain on the Earth’s resources and ecosystems. Thus, it is also important to understand how individual decisions influence the environment. Because of rising environmental concerns and because they are extremely complex, broadly-based problem solving skills are required.  Human life and natural life are based on various balances. The environmental balance that human beings maintain is among the most important. 

Reducing environmental problems and increasing the number of environmentally sensitive individuals is only possible through education (Genc 2015). Children must have a comprehensive understanding of environmental issues and, undoubtedly, then, youth must contribute to solving these environmental problems.

What is even more worrisome is the fact that a general decrease in the amount of time children spend outdoors has occurred. So much so, that they are often disconnected from nature, a phenomenon that has been observed frequently over the last couple of years and outdoor learning is lacking in different areas. In particular, direct experiences of nature are observed less and less in an urbanised world. Unfortunately, the majority of children today grow up indoors and as a result of their plugged-in lives (growing up in a highly technological environment), there has been a devoid to explore the natural world and limited contact with nature as they’ve been completely cut off from the natural environment. Moreover, if children are detached from nature, they won’t be able to adequately learn about, understand, and value nature. Additionally, it will extremely difficult for them to be stewards of our valuable resources (Forest Foundation (sa)).

Louv (2005) (as cited in Ernst and Theimar 2011) speaks of a “nature-deficit disorder” and Forest Foundation (sa) notes that “this has various serious consequences for their health: attention difficulties, hyperactivity, childhood obesity, diminished use of senses, and disconnect from things that are real”. Louv (as cited in Ernst and Theimar 2011) poses the question in his book, Last Child in the Woods: Saving our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder: If this gap between children and nature continues to widen, where will future conservationists come from?

Environmental sensitivity appears to be rooted in childhood experiences in nature (Ernst and Theimar 2011). In particular, early childhood is ideal to instill environmental awareness. During this ideal time for learning, children not only have fresh, uncluttered minds but have a strong natural curiosity to learn. This can only be achieved by instilling good moral values. If done effectively, imaginatively and universally, such education would sustain them through their lives’ sojourn in ways ensuring that a reasonable global environmental capital is left behind for future generations (Nath [sa]).

During early childhood, according to Westervelt and Llewellyn (1985) (as cited in Ernst and Theimar 2011) “children are actively searching for more information about animals and their attitudes toward animals are still forming, this age provides excellent opportunities for fostering an appreciation for the natural world”. Children as young as pre-school age should be involved in EE. At this age they are very susceptible to the influence of teachers and other people (Lubomira 2004). EE programs may have a greater potential to foster connectedness if they reach younger, rather than older students”. 

Source: Recmanagement
Source: Invermereyoga
It is important to include connectedness to nature in EE due its relationship to environmental sensitivity and its potential link to environmental behavior (Ernst and Theimar 2011). Children, being close to the natural environment, tend to relate to it as a source of joy and wonder. It is important that children relate to the natural environment wholeheartedly so as to preserve its integrity in the interests of both present and future generations (Naft [sa]) and this will ensure that they have a sensitivity towards Mother Nature. A connection to nature is integral in fostering responsible environmental behavior and environmental protection (Ernst and Theimar 2011).

Mayer & Frantz (2004) (as cited in Ernst and Theimar 2011) note that “if people feel connected to nature, then they will be less likely to harm it, for harming it would in essence harming their very self”. Kimbell (as cited in Ernst and Theimar 2011) notes that “children need a direct connection to both forests and nature for their health and personal growth and for the future of conservation”. Children must have a sense of connection to some part of the non-human natural environment. They must have a belief that the environment is important to us and an important part of who we are (Ernst and Theimar 2011). It is important that children are daily exposed to natural settings and thus it is imperative to wholeheartedly encourage children to re-connect, which will ultimately mean that a conservation ethic is fostered, and to stimulate their awareness and curiosity about the environment. Children must experience nature and bond with nature by just ‘being’ in nature (Ernst and Theimar 2011). A sense of oneness with the natural world occurs.

Source: Boredpanda
The human–nature relationship has been explored in numerous ways, often with an emphasis on the ‘affective’ domain, but some incorporating cognitive (knowledge and beliefs) and behavioral/psychomotor (actions and experiences) aspects as well. Human–place bonding, referring to the emotional bond that develops between an individual and the environment, is also of significance.The idea that humans are part of nature has rendered nature an ambiguous term. On the one hand, nature means a world from which humans are excluded; on the other hand, it means a world they are part of. The necessity of creating proper relations between humans, nature and the environment requires extensive teaching (Lubomira 2004; Colwell 1997; Ernst and Theimar 2011).


9.1.Defining Environmental Education (EE)
Environmental education is an important, emerging discipline. In 1968, the UNESCO Biosphere Conference in Paris issued a declaration that there was a worldwide awareness of the field of EE. It was then defined as the process of recognizing values and clarifying concepts in order to develop skills and attitudes necessary to understand and appreciate the inter-relatedness among man, his culture, and his biophysical surroundings. EE also entails practice in decision making and self-formulation of a code of behavior about issues concerning environmental quality (Palmer 1998) (as cited in Kopnina 2012). UNESCO (1977) defines EE as constituting a “comprehensive, lifelong education, one responsive to changes in a rapidly changing world. It should prepare the individual for life, through an understanding of the major problems of the contemporary world, and the provision of skills and attributes needed to play a productive role towards improving life and protecting the environment with due regard given to ethical values”. 

EE is the study of the relationships and interactions between dynamic natural and human systems. It includes learning in the field as well as the classroom; it incorporates the teaching methods of outdoor education, experiential education, and place-based education; and it is inherently multi-disciplinary (includes elements of biology, chemistry, physics, ecology, earth science, atmospheric science, mathematics, and geography) (No Children Left Inside (sa)).EE means educating “for” the environment, with strategies that promote critical thinking over knowledge transmission, investigation over indoctrination, and collaborative, local, science-based solutions over advocacy-driven measures (Short 2009).

Source: Smore
EE is a process that allows individuals to explore environmental issues, engage in problem solving, and take action to improve the environment. As a result, individuals develop a deeper understanding of environmental issues and have the skills to make informed and responsible decisions (US Environmental Protection Agency (sa)). EE is about teaching how natural environments functions and how people can live enables knowledge of the environment and its problems and what the solutions thereof can be. It is about studying various things in natural surroundings. Chiappo (1978) (as cited in Kopnina 2012) argues “EE should be critical in fostering awareness of the social and political factors of the problem. EE should favor a return to harmony with nature in order to redress the balance of the ecosystem and to enable man’s full potential to flourish”. It is also fundamental to educate them on the need to care for and respect the natural environment instead of exploiting it carelessly or degrading it. Thus, in short, EE must be holistic and about connections, involving getting children outside to experience nature first-hand. 

9.2.Components of EE
Source: Corvallis Environmental Center
Important distinctions between the goals of EE were made by Lucas (1979) ‘in’, ‘about’ or ‘for’ the environment in order to avoid misunderstandings about the intended type of EE (Kopnina 2012). EE comprises three interlinked components: Knowledge (education about the environment); Values, Attitudes and Positive actions (education for the environment); and, lastly, a Resource (education through the environment). The components of EE are awareness and sensitivity to the environment and environmental challenges; knowledge and understanding of the environment and environmental challenges; attitudes of concern for the environment and motivation to improve or maintain environmental quality; skills to identify and help resolve environmental challenges; and to participation in activities that lead to the resolution of environmental challenges (US Environmental Protection Agency (sa)). There are many forms of EE: experiential lessons in the school yard, field trips to national parks, after-school green clubs, and school-wide sustainability projects. Celebration of Earth Day or participation in EE week (run through the National Environmental Education Foundation) can help further EE. Effective programs promote a holistic approach and lead by example, using sustainable practices in the school to encourage students and parents to bring environmental education into their home (Wikipedia).It is about encouraging children to examine and interpret the environment from different perspectives including physical, geographical, biological, sociological, historical, aesthetic, and ethical. Nature can be seen as a science lab of sorts. 

9.3.Importance of EE
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) states that EE is vital in imparting an inherent respect for nature and in enhancing public environmental awareness. Children experiencing small-scale successes can become empowered and motivated for a lifetime of responsible actions on a larger scale. 

Source: Waffee
Barnett, Vaughn, Strauss, and Cotter (2011) (as cited in Genc 2015) state that “by engaging students in locally focused, in-depth and targeted environmental science investigations, students could develop the confidence to investigate and solve local problems, increasing their certainty in their ability to study science and perform scientific investigations”. It promotes school/community partnerships; it is hands-on, student-centered, inquiry driven, engages higher level thinking skills, and relevant to students' everyday lives; and children develop awareness, increases knowledge, builds skills, and creates the capacity for stewardship and good citizenship regarding the environment upon which we depend for life support (No Children Left Inside (sa)).

By actively participating in nature-related activities, children are able to make well-informed decisions with regards to the environment. Through this, they get a first-hand observation of nature. Furthermore, they are able to maintain, protect & improve the quality of environment. Thus, they assist in safeguarding the ecological balance and as Ernst, Blood & Beery (2015) note, “youth are important drivers of innovation and change”. The development of an environmentally literate and active citizenry capable of thinking critically about environmental issues to work toward improvement or maintenance of environmental conditions is important (Short 2009). Because of the experiences that children have now, a greater potential for future environmental leadership will occur. Local, hands-on experience helps children develop environmental concern. Because EE programs frequently incorporate experiences in nature, and opportunities to learn and practice action skills in a local and relevant context, they have the ability to foster connectedness to nature, particularly when they include frequent and/or extended experiences (Ernst and Theimar 2011).

9.4.Aims of EE
EE’s foundational aim is action toward the solution of environmental problems (UNESCO 1978) (as cited in Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015). 

Source: The Green Market Oracle
EE is “aimed at producing a citizenry that is knowledgeable concerning the biophysical environment and its associated problems, aware of how to help solve these problems, and motivated to work towards their solution” (Stapp et al. 1969 as cited in Pooley & O’Connor 2002). It is about assessing environmental issues, finding feasible solutions to any problems that are identified, and creating pro-environmental behavior (Magnus, Martinez, & Pedauye, 1997 as cited in Pooley & O’Connor 2002). It is about developing independent, critical thinkers equipped with the knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary for long-term responsible behaviors (Short 2009). 

EE focuses on: Engaging with citizens of all demographics to think critically, ethically, and creatively when evaluating environmental issues; make educated judgments about those environmental issues; develop skills and a commitment to act independently and collectively to sustain and enhance the environment; and to enhance their appreciation of the environment; resulting in positive environmental behavioral change (WIKIPEDIA). 

9.5.EE objectives
The ultimate objective of EE, according to the Tbilisi Declaration, is interpreted to be the people’s active involvement in working toward the resolution of environmental problems (Short 2009). As stated in the Tbilisi Declaration (UNESCO 1978), the objectives for EE include awareness, knowledge, attitudes, skills, and participation (Ernst and Theimar 2011). Furthermore it is about increasing people’s awareness about environmental issues and explore potential solutions. It is also about laying the foundations for a totally informed and active participation of individual in protecting the environment as well as the sustainable and rational use of natural resources.
Source: Merid

EE objectives include (The Global Development Research Center (sa)):
·  Participation - to provide individuals, groups and societies with opportunities to be actively involved in exercising their skills of environmental citizenship and be actively involved at all levels in working towards sustainable development.
·     Knowledge - to help individuals, groups and societies gain a variety of experiences in, and a basic understanding of, the knowledge and action competencies required for sustainable development
·    Values - to help individuals, groups and societies acquire feelings of concern for issues of sustainability as well as a set of values upon which they can make judgments about appropriate ways of acting individually and with others to promote sustainable development
·  Skills - to help individuals, groups and societies acquire the action competence or skills of environmental citizenship - in order to be able to identify and anticipate environmental problems and work with others to resolve, minimize and prevent them
·     Awareness - to create an overall understanding of the impacts and effects of behaviors and lifestyles - on both the local and global environments, and on the short-term and long-term.

Source: Oise Toronto
One of the EE’s primary objectives is to raise an environmentally literate society. Environmentally literate individuals are those who are sensitive to the environment, informed about the environment and maintain a positive attitude toward the environment (Genc 2015).

9.6.Benefits of EE

EE helps address “nature deficit disorder” as children spend way too much time indoors and which have led to various negative psychological and physical effects including obesity, loneliness, depression, attention problems and greater social isolation due to reduced time with friends and family. Environmental education is an important aspect for successful environmental management and an important way to reconnect kids to nature. Environmental education links classroom learning to the real world. By integrating science curriculum in environmental education, it improves student achievement in science. Participating in environmental activities, there is a wonderful improvement in student performances especially in science and math, and there is increased focus/improved cognition. It also has led to building an environmental literacy and therefore children will then be more likely to take actions to conserve the environment. It builds critical thinking, and relationship skills. It emphasizes specific critical thinking skills central to “good science”— questioning, investigating, forming hypotheses, interpreting data, analyzing, developing conclusions, and solving problems. It also enhances basic life skills. Children also participate in hands-on activities. It also has self-control/self-discipline benefits for children with ADD. Children are physically active and creative. Their overall emotional well being is also good. They also have an increased engagement and enthusiasm for learning. Children will also be wholeheartedly encouraged to pursue environmental and natural resources careers (Forest Foundation (sa); Archie, 2003). EE assists in learning children the things that books and video screens can’t. They can view natural aspects up close by seeing in-depth how ecological systems work and how their elements work together. 

EE must provide opportunities to acquire environmental knowledge, values, attitudes, commitment, skills, and behaviors (Genc 2015) needed to protect and improve the environment and to empower these environmental leaders to address natural resource conservation challenges and to have an informed concern to actively participate in resolving environmental problems.

10.1.        Attitude
The right attitudes towards environment will be nurtured in children minds. The degree to which an individual associates oneself with nature is directly related to the types of attitudes s/he develops (Ernst and Theimar 2011). Nath [sa] notes that “how we treat nature and the environment is fundamentally determined by our attitude to it. Also, our attitude is shaped by our moral values. If people are serious about protecting the environment, then the prevailing exploitative attitude to nature must give way to one of respect and care.

Newhouse (1990) (as cited in Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015) suggests environmental attitudes may be one of the most important influences on behaviors. Environmental attitudes can be in regards to the environment in a general sense (or in the sense of some aspect of the environment, such as wildlife); or they can be in regards to taking environmental action (Hines, Hungerford, and Tomera 1986; 1987) (as cited in Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015). Because attitude influences behavior, individuals adopting a positive environmental attitude have taken a significant step toward a sustainable environment (Genc 2015). Unsurprisingly, promoting positive attitudes towards Mother Nature is imperative if children are to value it and to understand their important role in safeguarding it for the future. Experiences in nature develop positively caring attitudes toward the environment. Environmental attitudes may be based on different sources of information, and therefore attitudes toward specific environmental issues may be predicted by both cognition (beliefs) and affect (emotions or feelings) (Pooley & O’Connor 2002).

Environmental sensitivity is a set of affective characteristics that result in an individual viewing the environment from an empathetic perspective (Peterson (1982 as cited in Ernst and Theimar 2011). Chawla (1998)(as cited in Ernst and Theimar 2011) notes that “environmental sensitivity is a predisposition to take an interest in learning about the environment, feeling concern for it, and acting to conserve it, on the basis of formative experiences. Environmental sensitivity is associated with responsible environmental behavior (Ernst and Theimar 2011).

10.2.        Behavior
Because a clear goal of environmental education is to change behavior, it would be advantageous first to understand the basis of environmental attitudes to facilitate changing environmental behavior (Pooley & O’Connor 2002). Pro-environmental behavior is personal actions that are directly related to environmental improvement and it means a greater concern for other living things on earth. By enhancing their appreciation of the environment it will not only result in positive environmental behavioral change, but it will also help them to think critically when evaluating environmental issues. Pro-environmental behavior is ‘probably best viewed as a mixture of self-interest and of concern for other people, the next generation, other species, or whole ecosystems’ (Bamberg and Möser 2007) (as cited in Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015). An implied goal of environmental education is to facilitate a change in environmental behavior (Short 2009). Human behaviors can only be assessed, of course, by the “frequency, intensity, duration, latency, and perseverance of the actions” (Short 2009).

While there is research suggesting a relationship between connectedness to nature and pro-environmental behavior, it is unclear as to the strength and nature of this relationship. While it seems to be assumed that connectedness influences behavior, perhaps pro-environmental behavior (actions in the environment, where children act on behalf of the environment and see their actions make a difference) instead promotes a feeling of oneness or connectedness with the environmental around them (Ernst and Theimar 2011). Children are then able to fully develop environmentally conscious behavior. Education intertwined with action is an instrumental means for encouraging behavioral change (Schelly et al. 2012) (as cited in Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015). An emotional affinity toward nature is a strong predictor of nature-protective behavior. Nature experiences have significant correlations with pro-environmental behaviors. The more one has an effective connection with the natural environment, the greater one’s intentions to engage with it (Ernst and Theimar 2011). 

10.3.        Morals
Moral (personal) norms are feelings of strong moral obligations to engage in pro-social behavior. People are more likely to feel a moral obligation to act in ways that benefit others when they are aware of the consequences of their actions and when they ascribe at least some responsibility for these consequences to themselves (Schwartz 1977) (as cited in Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015). 

10.4.        Information and Knowledge
Source: Recycle Nation
Models guiding current environmental education efforts typically include environmental knowledge and attitudes along with a broader set of demographic and psycho-social variables and external factors (Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015). We need to give individuals more environmental information, more environmental knowledge to change their environmental behavior (Pooley & O’Connor 2002). Environmental knowledge and attitudes have been shown to influence environmental behaviors and action (Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015). Developing EE can successfully be done by disseminating environmental information through experiences in the natural environment, and developing knowledge through formal teaching situations and the media. We need to give individuals more environmental information, more environmental knowledge to change their environmental behavior (Hungerford & Volk, 1990) (as cited in Pooley & O’Connor 2002).

10.5.        Responsibility
By exposing children to a natural setting, it will lead to instilling an environmental ethic in them and develop an enhanced understanding and responsibility of nature. They are able to take their own responsibility and accountability for environmental problems and issues. By taking personal ownership in the issues they address, their involvement in environmental action becomes integrated into their sense of identity (Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015). 

10.6.        Action
As Short (2009) points out “if behavior is the wind, then action is the observable and measurable sway of the tree”. Jensen (2002) (as cited in Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015) recommends EE that develops ‘the abilities of students to act at the personal and societal levels, that is, to increase their action competence’, which ‘includes the capacity to be able to act, now and in the future, and to be responsible for one’s actions’ (Jensen and Schnack 1997) (as cited in Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015). Direct or indirect action involves a conscious decision to act and is directed toward solving an environmental problem (Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015). Every opportunity for environmental action is likely to positively impact students’ growth (Short 2009). Action is the goal of education. In EE, the type of action desired is that which maintains or improves conditions necessary for ecosystem stability, biological diversity, and abundance (Short 2009). Intention toward future involvement in environmental action is also of utmost importance.

Nature activities in childhood and youth, as well as examples of parents, teachers, and other role models who show an interest in nature predispose people to take an interest in nature themselves and later work for its protection (Ernst and Theimar 2011). Teachers are most influential in educating children and teenagers to be tomorrow’s leaders in environmental advocacy (Esa 2010) (as cited in Genc 2015). For more effective EE active learning methods must be implemented. If teachers have positive environmental attitudes, their students will have positive environmental attitudes and be automatically aware of environmental problems (Ozden 2008) (as cited in Genc 2015).  Chawla and Derr (2012) (as cited in Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015) suggest that although life paths toward environmental action vary in different contexts, experiences in natural areas and family members are major influences in childhood and adolescence, as are teachers peers, youth organizations, and seeing environmental destruction (Short 2009).
Source: Pisces Foundation
No positive participation by young students should ever be discouraged, regardless of how insignificant the immediate environmental impact may appear to be. It is imperative that prospective teachers are environmentally sensitive individuals, who volunteer to solve environmental problems and develop positive environmental attitudes so that they can educate their students in a similar vein (Short 2009).

Strategies to get children into nature are important. These target areas include: knowledge about environmental issues; building self-efficacy; developing skills in problem-solving, decision-making, and action-taking through ‘empowering students with choice, using local real problems, and enabling youth to witness the results of their activity’ (Monroe 2003) (as cited in Ernst and Theimar 2011). Chawla and Cushing (2007) note that “conditions and strategies such as knowledge about environmental issues, practicing action skills, taking ownership of environmental issues, participation in environmental clubs and organizations, and everyday life experiences/positive experiences in nature are important”.

Various authors (Liefländer 2015; Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015; Ernst and Theimar 2011) conducted research and the key findings were as follows: (1) Younger pupils initially showed a stronger connectedness to nature and stronger pro-environmental attitudes than older pupils. (2) For both age groups, the environmental education program was equally effective over the short-term; however, it was more effective for the younger students six weeks after participation with regard to connectedness and attitudes (3) Environmental knowledge increased and persisted in both age groups (Liefländer 2015). Negev et al. (2008) (as cited in Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015) found stronger correlations between attitudes and behaviors among younger students than older students. Participants had strong intentions toward future involvement in the form of continued and/or future participation in identifying and addressing environmental issues during their remaining high school and/or upcoming college years, participating in environmental or conservation efforts or organizations through service or volunteerism, taking courses pertaining to learning about or addressing environmental issues in college, and considering a career in an environmentally-related field (Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015).

Participants with higher levels of (more positive) environmental attitudes prior to participation were more likely to implement their environmental action projects (Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015). Those who associate themselves with the natural environment tend to hold more biospheric attitudes, while those with less of an association may still be concerned about the environment, but focused more narrowly on issues that directly affect the individual (Ernst and Theimar 2011). 

While there is overlap, there also may be distinctness between predictors of youths’ (and specifically student environmental leaders) environmental action (in the broader conception of action) and predictors of adults’ pro-environmental behavior (specific individual, private-sphere behavior) (Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015). Research conducted by Kals, Schumacher, & Montada (1999) (as cited in Ernst and Theimar 2011) found that “the first most significant predictor of affinity toward nature is frequency of time in nature, and the second most significant predictor being past frequency of time in nature (time during childhood)”.

There are a multitude of barriers that can intervene between intention to act and actual action. Hines, Hungerford, and Tomera (1986) (as cited in Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015)  describe ‘additional factors’ including economic, social, or feasibility factors that can pose a significant enough barrier that prevents action. Similarly, Blake (1999) identifies ‘practicality’ barriers, such as lack of time, money, and encouragement. Stern, Dietz, and Kalof (1993) (as cited in Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015) add a weighing of priorities to the list of potential barriers. Heberlein (2012) (as cited in Ernst, Blood & Beery 2015) emphasizes a consideration of how technology and structure (physical and organizational), in addition to information, can create both barriers and opportunities for human behavior change and environmental action. The most significant factor that restrains the development of environmentally conscious behavior is lack of awareness. 

Thus, learning experiences and knowledge about nature are crucial. When children learn about the importance of conserving the environment, they will have a greater passion and interest in saving it.Nature must be an integral part of their childhood. Children, did you hear that? Nature is calling. 


Colwell, T. 1997. Viewpoint: The Nature—Culture Distinction and the Future of Environmental Education. The Journal of Environmental Education, 28:4, 4-8.

Ernst, J. & Theimer, S. 2011. Evaluating the effects of environmental education programming on connectedness to nature, Environmental Education Research, 17:5, 577-598.

Ernst, J., Blood, N. & Beery, T. 2015. Environmental action and student environmental leaders: exploring the influence of environmental attitudes, locus of control, and sense of personal responsibility, Environmental Education Research.

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Pooley, J.M. & O’Connor, M.  2000. Environmental Education And Attitudes: Emotions and Beliefs Are What Is Needed. Environment and Behavior, Vol. 32 No. 5, p. 711-723. Sage Publications, Inc.

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The Global Development Research Center. “Environmental Education”. Accessed on 19/09/2016. Available at: